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Wheat is a cereal crop with the scientific name Triticum, which is known as one of the most important food sources in the world and cultivated in many parts of the world.

The most important use of wheat is in the production of flour, which is used as the main ingredient in the preparation of bread, cakes, cookies, and other bakery products. The crop is also used in the production of many other food products, including pasta and processed foods.

Wheat has a high nutritional value and is a good source of vitamins, minerals, and fiber. In addition to the agricultural sector, this crop also plays a significant role in the world economy and is considered as one of the main food supply products in many countries.

Components of wheat grain

Wheat grain is the main and important part of the crop, which is used as the main ingredient for the preparation of bread and other food products. The seed is formed as a bud, a central layer and a husk. Below, the main components of wheat grain will be described:

Husk (outer layer)

Husk is the outer layer of wheat grain that contains fiber, minerals, and additional nutrients. This layer acts for the seed as a protection from environmental effects.

Central Layer

The center layer of the wheat grain contains most of the important nutrients. This section includes vitamins, minerals (such as iron, phosphorus, manganese, and magnesium), protein, starch, and fats.


The sprout of the wheat plant is a small part of the grain that covers it from the inner layers. This part is rich in nutrients such as vitamins (especially vitamin E), unsaturated fatty acids, antioxidants and fiber.

Due to the rich content of protein, and the supply of minerals and starch, wheat grain is considered as a basic and important food source in human nutrition.

Types of wheat

Spring and winter wheat are two important types of wheat, each of which has its own characteristics and uses. These two types of wheat are cultivated alternately in the fields and are cultivated and harvested in different and certain seasons of a year.

spring wheat

Spring wheat is one of the important types of wheat that is planted in spring and harvested in summer. This type of wheat is usually cultivated in areas with mild and warm winters. Spring wheat is more tolerant to warmer temperatures than winter wheat and is suitable as an alternative for regions with mild or hot winters.

The characteristics of spring wheat include high protein content, compatibility with density cultivation and wide application in the production of bread and bakery products. Due to its characteristics, the wheat is known as an important source of protein in human nutrition.

Winter Wheat

Winter wheat is another type of wheat that is planted in autumn and harvested in spring. This wheat is more tolerant to colder temperatures than spring wheat. Winter wheat is usually grown in areas with cold or snowy winters.

The features of winter wheat include adaptability to cold winter conditions, frost resistance, and various applications in the production of bread, flour, and other food products. In regions with cold and snowy winters, this wheat is considered as an alternative to spring wheat for cultivation.

Spring and winter wheat are very important in the food supply of the society. Due to their characteristics, these two types of wheat are used in alternate cultivation and play an important role in the agriculture industry and the production of food products.

Suitable Conditions for Wheat Growth

Deep sandy and clay soil with good drainage is suitable for growing wheat. Basically, the yield of wheat in rain-fed agriculture is more in soils with low texture. Because these types of soils are able to hold water better and for a longer period of time. But in irrigated agriculture (where the farmer irrigates the plant himself), wheat is usually not much influenced by its soil texture. Wheat, like other plants, cannot germinate in dry soil.

Spring wheat always has its desired moisture due to the storage of winter moisture in the soil. But the soil moisture of spring wheat usually causes problems in the germination process. If the soil does not have enough moisture for the initial growth of the sprout, the seeds may expose to injuries caused by cold.

Suitable weather for growing wheat

The ideal conditions for wheat growth are cool weather during vegetative growth, moderate weather during seed formation, and hot and dry weather during harvest. Therefore, in regions with harsh winters, wheat cultivation faces problems such as winter frost. Of course, it should be mentioned that wheat does not have much resistance to drought and cannot tolerate drought and lack of water for a long time, but it is able to cope with dry conditions by forming Smaller cells, which eventually lead to the formation of small leaves and as a result the stomata become smaller, reduce the level of transpiration and reduce the adverse effects of dehydration.


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